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Definition of Terms

Economic and Social Context for Decent Work

Employment Opportunities

Indicator and Definition Data Source

Employment-to-population ratio - total employed as a percentage share of total working age population.
Working age population refers to household population 15 years old and over: This consists of:

  1. Persons who are present at the time of visit of the enumerator:

    - whose usual place of residence is the sample household regardless of their length of stay in the household,
    - whose usual place of residence is outside the sample household but have stayed temporarily with the sample household for at least 30 days,
    - whose usual place of residence is outside the sample household but have stayed with the sample household even for less than 30 days provided that they have been away from their usual place of residence for 30 days or more;

  2. Persons who are not present at the time of visit but are expected to return within 30 days from date of departure to their usual place of residence, which is the sample household;
  3. Students abroad/tourists who have been away for one year or less and are expected to be back within a year from date of departure. These also include those attending training abroad, medical treatment and missionaries.

Excludes:
Persons in institutions who are not expected to return within 30 days; members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines who have been away from their usual place of residence for more than 30 days; Filipinos, whose usual place of residence is in a foreign country, who are and will be in the Philippines for less than one year from arrival; citizens of foreign countries and members of their families who are in the Philippines as tourists, students, businessmen, or for employment provided they expect to stay in the country for one year or less from arrival; foreign ambassadors, ministers, consuls or other diplomatic representatives, and members of their families, regardless of the length of their stay; and citizens of foreign countries who are chiefs and officials of international organizations like UN, ILO or USAID and members of their families, regardless of their length of their stay; and Overseas Filipino Workers and employees in Philippine embassies, consulates and other missions.

PSA, LFS

Unemployment rate - total unemployed as a percentage share of total labor force.

PSA, LFS

Youth not in education and not in employment, 15-24 years - total unemployed youth who are not currently attending school plus total youth not in the labor force who are not currently attending school, as a percentage share of total youth household population.

PSA, LFS

Labor force participation rate - total labor force as a percentage share of total working age population.
Labor force participation gap - labor force participation rate of men less labor force participation rate of women

PSA, LFS

Youth unemployment rate, 15-24 years - total unemployed youth as a percentage share of total youth labor force.

PSA, LFS

Unemployment by level of education - percentage distribution of total unemployed by highest grade completed.

PSA, LFS

Employment by class of worker - percentage distribution of total employed by class of worker.
Class of worker categories:

  1. Wage and salary workers (or employees)
  2. Employers in own family-operated farm or business
  3. Self-employed without any paid employee
  4. Unpaid family workers (worked without pay) in own family-operated farm or business

PSA, LFS

Proportion of self-employed and unpaid family workers in total employment - total self-employed plus total unpaid family workers, as a percentage share of total employed.

PSA, LFS

Share of wage employment in non-agricultural employment - total wage and salary workers in non-agricultural employment as a percentage share of total non-agricultural employment.

PSA, LFS

Wage and salary workers in non-agricultural employment - percentage distribution of men and women in non-agricultural wage employment.

PSA, LFS

Adequate Earnings and Productive Work

Indicator and Definition Data Source

Working poverty rate - total employed living in a household whose members are estimated to be below the poverty threshold, as a percentage share of total employed.  It is assumed that a household cannot have poor and non-poor members; either all members are poor or all members are non-poor since poverty is a characteristic of the household.

PSA, Merged Files of the LFS and FIES

Low-paid employees

  1. Low-paid employees, % of employed - wage and salary workers with hourly basic pay (in primary job) below 2/3 of the median hourly basic pay of total wage and salary workers, as a percentage share of total employed.
  2. Low-paid employees, % of employees - wage and salary workers with hourly basic pay (in primary job) below 2/3 of the median hourly basic pay of total wage and salary workers, as a percentage share of total wage and salary workers.

Hourly basic pay of an employee is a derived indicator.  It was computed as basic pay per day divided by the corresponding normal working hours per day during the reference week.
Basic pay - pay for normal time, prior to deductions of social security contributions, withholding taxes, etc.  It excludes allowances, bonuses, commissions, overtime pay, benefits in kind, etc.
Normal working hours - refer to the usual or prescribed working hours of a person in his/her primary job/business which is considered a full day’s work.  These include the overtime hours if the person regularly works overtime.  On average at the national level, normal working hours is around eight (8) per employee.
A primary job is determined in accordance with the following priority rules: 1) if only one job, then it is the primary job regardless of permanency or hours worked in the job; 2) if more than one job, the primary job is that which is permanent regardless of hours worked; 3) if more than one permanent job, consideration is given to the job where more hours of work are spent; 4) if equal hours are spent in the permanent jobs, the primary job is that which provides more income.

PSA, LFS

Average real daily basic pay of employees - average daily basic pay of wage and salary workers in nominal terms deflated by the Consumer Price Index.

PSA, LFS/ CPI

Minimum hourly basic pay as % of median hourly basic pay, non-agriculture in Metro Manila - minimum hourly basic pay in non-agriculture as a proportion of median hourly basic pay in non-agriculture.

NWPC;
PSA, LFS

Manufacturing wage index - the index formulated as a Laspeyres price index is as follows:

where  is the average daily basic pay of employees in group i, for instance, employees working in the manufacturing of food products at current year t, and  is the average daily basic pay of employees in group i at base year o.  The number of employees in group i at base year o is given by .  The expression in the parenthesis comprises the weight based on the base period.

PSA, LFS

Employees with recent job training (past 12 months) - total employees provided job-related training by employers as a percentage share of total employed.
Job-related training - include trainings conducted by the employer and those which were offered by other institutions but are financed by the employer.

PSA, BITS/ISLE

Workers certified, % of workers assessed (certification rate) - total workers certified as a percentage share of total workers assessed under the Philippine Technical and Vocational Education and Training Qualification and Certification System.
Worker certified - refers to an individual who is provided certification after he/she has met the competency standards of the job.
Worker assessed - refers to an individual who undergoes an assessment process to determine whether he/she can perform to the standards expected in the workplace based on the defined competency standards.  This ensures the productivity, quality and global competitiveness of the worker.

TESDA

Decent Hours

Indicator and Definition Data Source

Employed with excessive hours (more than 48 hours actually worked per week) - total employed who worked more than 48 hours per week (in all jobs or primary job) as a percentage share of total employed
Hours worked - refer to: (1) hours actually worked during normal periods of work; (2) over-time; (3) time spent at the place of work on activities such as the preparation of the workplace, repairs and maintenance, the preparation and cleaning of tools, and the preparation of receipts, time sheets and reports; (4) time spent at the place of work waiting or standing-by for customers or for such reasons as lack of supply of work, breakdown of machinery, or accidents, or time spent at the place of work during which no work is done but for which payment is made under a guaranteed employment contract; and (5) time corresponding to short rest periods at the workplace, including tea and coffee breaks.
Primary job - determined in accordance with the following priority rules: 1) if only one job, then it is the primary job regardless of permanency or hours worked in the job; 2) if more than one job, the primary job is that which is permanent regardless of hours worked; 3) if more than one permanent job, consideration is given to the job where more hours of work are spent; 4) if equal hours are spent in the permanent jobs, the primary job is that which provides more income.

PSA, LFS

Employed by hours actually worked per week - percentage distribution of total employed by hours actually worked per week in standardized hour bands (in all jobs or primary job).
Standardized hour bands per week:
Less than 20 hours, 20-29, 30-39, 40-48, 49 and over

PSA, LFS

Average weekly hours actually worked per employed person - average weekly hours worked of total employed persons at work (in all jobs or primary job).

PSA, LFS

Underemployment rate - total employed who wanted additional work (wanted additional hours of work in their present job, or to have additional job, or a new job with longer working hours) as a percentage share of total employed.

PSA, LFS

Visible underemployment rate - total employed who wanted additional work and worked less than 40 hours in primary job as a percentage share of total employed.

PSA, LFS

Time-related underemployment rate - total employed who wanted additional work and worked less than 40 hours in all jobs as a percentage share of total employed.

PSA, LFS

Combining Work, Family and Personal Life

Indicator and Definition Data Source

Economically inactive due to household/family duties - total persons who did not look for work due to household/family duties as a percentage share of total working age population.

PSA, LFS

Employed who are married - total employed who are married as a percentage share of total employed.

PSA, LFS

Employed who are heads of households - total employed who are household heads as a percentage share of total employed.
Household head - adult member of the household who is responsible for the care and organization of the household or the one who is regarded as such by the members of the household.  The following may be considered as the household head:

  1. one who is responsible for the care and organization of the household;
  2. one who makes the final decision even if he/she does not contribute to the finances of the household;
  3. the oldest member of the household and is regarded as the household head; and
  4. the household member who is now working abroad as an Overseas Filipino Worker and is still regarded as the household head.

PSA, LFS

Work That Should be Abolished

Indicator and Definition Data Source

Economic activity rate of children - total working children in ith age group as a percentage share of total household population of children in ith age group.

PSA, LFS

Working children not currently attending school - total working children not currently attending school in ith age group as a percentage share of working children in ith age group.

PSA, LFS

Working children by major industry group (or major occupation group) - percentage distribution of working children by major industry group (or major occupation group).

PSA, LFS

Stability and Security at Work

Indicator and Definition Data Source

Employees in precarious work (household survey data)

  1. Employees in precarious work, % of employed - total wage and salary workers whose nature of employment is short-term or seasonal or casual plus total wage and salary workers who worked for different employers on day-to-day or week-to-week basis, as a percentage share of total employed.
  2. Employees in precarious work, % of employees - total wage and salary workers whose nature of employment is short-term or seasonal or casual plus total wage and salary workers who worked for different employers on day-to-day or week-to-week basis, as a percentage share of total employees.

Short-term or seasonal or casual workers - wage and salary workers whose employment had lasted or expected to last less than one year since it started.
Worked for different employers or customers on day-to-day or week-to-week basis - for odd job workers/stevedores not on payroll or not connected with union/market and other cargo handlers receiving pay from individual customers.

PSA, LFS

Employees in precarious work (establishment survey data) - total employees hired on casual, seasonal or contractual/project-based basis as a percentage share of total employed.
Casual worker - worker whose work is not usually necessary and desirable to the usual business or trade of the employer.  The employment is not for a specific undertaking or seasonal in nature.
Seasonal worker - worker whose employment, specifically its timing and duration, is significantly influenced by seasonal factors.
Contractual/project-based worker - worker whose employment has been fixed for a specific project or undertaking, the completion or termination of which has been determined at the time of engagement.  An agency-hired worker (or hired through a contractor) is excluded.

PSA, BITS/ISLE

Average real daily basic pay of short-term, seasonal or casual workers (household survey data) - average daily basic pay of short-term, seasonal or casual employees in nominal terms in year t divided by the Consumer Price Index in year t, then multiplied by 100.

PSA, LFS/ CPI

Equal Opportunity and Treatment in Employment

Indicator and Definition Data Source

Occupational segregation by sex
1) Female share in occupational employment - total employed women in ith major occupation group as a percentage share of total employed in the ith major occupation group.
2) Duncan Index of Dissimilarity - a summary indicator of occupational segregation. It ranges from 0 to 1, with 0 meaning no occupational segregation and 1 being complete segregation between the two sexes.  It is computed as: 1/2 Σ|Wi/W - Mi/M| where Wi and Mi are the shares of the employed women and men in the ith major occupation group relative to their respective totals, employed women (W) and employed men (M).

PSA, LFS

Female share of employment in senior and middle management (ISCO 88 groups 11 and 12)
1977 PSOC-based  data:  Total employed women who are legislative officials, government administrators and government executives, and managers, as a percentage share of total employed in the same occupational groups.
1992 PSOC-based data: Total employed women who are officials of government and special-interest organizations, corporate executives and specialized managers, as a percentage share of total employed in the same occupational groups.

PSA, LFS

Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector -percentage share of women in total wage and salary workers in non-agriculture.

PSA, LFS

Gender wage gap - difference between average daily basic pay of men and women as a percentage of average daily basic pay of men.

PSA, LFS

Safe Work Environment

Indicator and Definition Data Source

Incidence rate of occupational injuries, fatalities per 100,000 employed persons - total cases of occupational injuries resulting to deaths whether death occurs immediately after the accident or within the same year as the accident, per 100,000 employed persons.

PSA, BITS/OIS/
ISLE

Incidence rate of occupational injuries, non-fatalities per 100,000 employed persons - total cases of occupational injuries resulting to permanent (or temporary) incapacity for work per 100,000 employed persons.
Permanent incapacity - case where an injured person was absent from work for at least one day, excluding the day of the accident, and 1) was never able to perform again the normal duties of the job or position occupied at the time of the occupational accident, or 2) will be able to perform the same job but his/her total absence from work is expected to exceed a year starting the day
after the accident.
Temporary incapacity - case where an injured person was absent from work for at least one day, excluding the day of the accident, and 1) was able to perform again the normal duties of the job or position occupied at the time of the occupational accident or 2) will be able to perform in the same job but his/her total absence from work is expected not to exceed a year starting the day after the accident, or 3) did not return to the same job but the reason for changing the job is not related to his/her inability to perform the job at the time of the occupational accident.

PSA, BITS/OIS/
ISLE

Average days lost due to temporary incapacity cases - total workdays lost of cases of occupational injuries resulting to temporary incapacity per case of occupational injury resulting to temporary incapacity.
Workdays lost - refer to working days (consecutive or staggered) an injured person was absent from work, starting the day after the accident.  If the person is still absent from work by the end
of the reference year, his/her days lost cover the period from the day after the accident up to the end of the reference year.  Temporary absences from work of less than one day for medical treatment are not included in days lost.

PSA, BITS/OIS/
ISLE

Incidence rate of occupational diseases, per 100,000 employed persons - total cases of occupational diseases per 100,000 employed persons.
Occupational disease - refers to an abnormal condition or disorder other than one resulting from an occupational injury caused by exposure over a period of time to risk factors associated with work activity such as contact with certain chemicals, inhaling coal dust, carrying out repetitive movements.  These refer to new cases recognized, diagnosed and recorded during the year.

PSA, BITS/ISLE

Incidence rate of tuberculosis, per 100,000 employed persons - total cases of tuberculosis recognized, diagnosed and recorded during the yearper 100,000 employed persons.

PSA, BITS/ISLE

Labor inspectors per 100,000 employees in private establishments - total labor inspectors (actually conducting inspections) divided by total wage and salary workers in private establishments, then multiplied by 100,000.

DOLE-BWC;
PSA, LFS

Social Security

Indicator and Definition Data Source

Share of economically active population contributing to a pension scheme - total SSS and GSIS members (with at least one month posted contribution for the given year) as a percentage share of total labor force.

SSS; GSIS;
PSA, LFS

Share of population aged 60 and above benefiting from retirement/old age pension - total pensioners (formerly employed in the private and public sectors) who receive retirement/old age pensions on a lifetime cash benefit paid every month as a percentage share of total household population 60 years old and over.

SSS; GSIS;
PSA, LFS

Average monthly pension - average monthly pension benefits on social security (retirement, disability, death/survivorship) and employees compensation due to work-related injuries and diseases.

SSS; GSIS

Social security benefits, % of GDP - total social security benefits as a percentage share of Gross Domestic Product.
Social security benefits - social security payments to government and private employees and their beneficiaries by social security funds (Government Service Insurance System, Social Security System, National Health Insurance Program and Employees Compensation Program). These may take the form of retirement and survivorship pensions, sickness, disability and death benefits or other related allowances or benefits.

PSA, NAP

Health-care expenditures not financed out of pocket by private households, % of total health care expenditures - total (public and private) health care expenditures financed either by government, pre-paid private insurance, employers or non-governmental organizations as a percentage share of total health care expenditures.

PSA, Philippine National Health Accounts

Estimated share of population covered by National Health Insurance Program - total beneficiaries (members and dependents) of the National Health Insurance Program as a percentage share of total population.

PhilHealth

Social Dialogue, Workers’ and Employers’ Representation

Indicator and Definition Data Source

Union density rate - total employees who are union members as a percentage share of total employees.

PSA, BITS/IRWS/
ISLE/LFS

Collective bargaining coverage rate - total employees covered by CBAs as a percentage share of total employees.

PSA, BITS/IRWS/
ISLE/LFS

Strikes and lockouts
Strike - any temporary stoppage of work by the concerted action of employees as a result of an industrial or labor dispute. It excludes general strike, political strike, mass leave, sympathy strike and the like.
Lockout - temporary refusal of an employer to furnish work to his employees as a result of an industrial or labor dispute.

NCMB

Rates of days not worked - total days not worked by workers involved due to strikes and lockouts divided by employees in private establishments, then multiplied by 1,000.

NCMB;
PSA, LFS

Tripartite industry councils - tripartite councils that serve as fora for tripartite advisement and consultations among labor, employers and government sectors in the formulation of labor and employment policies.

DOLE-BLR

Voluntary Codes of Good Practices - a set of agreements that define the tripartite partners shared responsibility in settling differences in the spirit of self-governance and self-regulation, thus further enhancing the tripartite engagement of the social partners in the industry.

DOLE-BLR

 



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